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Stem Cell Research, Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.

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2Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore3Department of Pharmacology, Neurobiology and Ageing Programme, Singapore Institute for Neurotechnology, National University of4Department of Biochemistry, National University of

10Laboratory of Cancer Prevention, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute Frederick, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland, USA.

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6Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.

5. The correlation established between SNX27 levels and memory could explain why individuals with Down's syndrome encounter memory and learning difficulties. Identifying the target and its role is a crucial first step to therapy having known the role of SNX27 in memory impairment, future research on Down's syndrome could focus on developing strategies which can effectively re introduce the protein into the brain to restore memory and learning abilities.

´╗┐ASTAR Scientists Discover Proteins Role In Human Memory And Learning Functions

of Neurodegenerative Disease and Aging Research, Medical College, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.9Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California, USA.

4. The protein's role in the pathway leading to memory impairment, however, remained unclear until scientists from IMCB utilised live cell imaging techniques to elucidate the mechanism of memory impairment and illustrated how SNX27 attributes to synaptic dysfunction. The scientists observed that transmission of chemical signals between the nerve cells are facilitated by AMPA receptors and the activity occurs on the brain cell surface. As SNX27 plays an important role in shuttling the AMPA receptor to the brain cell surface, lower levels of SNX27 means fewer receptors are carried to the surface, which consequently interrupts the signal transmission and impairs memory. This discovery was reported in the 24 January, 2014 issue of the renowned scientific journal, Nature Lacoste Mens Shirts Communications.

7. Prof Hong added, "In IMCB, we conduct research that would contribute to our understanding of mankind. This is a good example where the study is directed at a human condition the Down's syndrome. The knowledge established from the findings could potentially translate into treatments for Down's syndrome or even become applicable to other similar human conditions."

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5Center for Neuroscience, Aging and Lacoste Grey T Shirt

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3. In an earlier study published in Nature Medicine, an international team of scientists discovered that the additional copy of chromosome 21 in Down's syndrome reduces the production of SNX27 in the brain and results in synaptic dysfunction. Synapse, a structure that permits nerve cells to pass chemical signals to each other, is known to have an important role in memory formation and its dysfunction could result in impairment. By re introducing SNX27 into the brain, memory could be restored hence suggesting that SNX27 is an essential protein for memory and learning.

February 19, 2013 1. Scientists at ASTAR's Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB) have identified the precise role of the protein, SNX27, in the pathway leading to memory and learning impairment. The study broadens the understanding of the brain's memory function and could be used to explain defects in the cognitive development of those with Down's syndrome. The newly established knowledge could potentially facilitate exploration of strategies to improve memory and learning abilities in Down's syndrome.

2. Down's syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by the presence of an additional copy of chromosome 21. About one in eight hundred new borns is diagnosed with Down's syndrome. It is a condition that leads to impairments in both cognitive ability and physical growth that range from mild to moderate developmental disabilities. Yet, there is still no treatment for it.

1Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore 138673, Singapore.

12Institute for Biomedical Research, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

The research findings described in this media release can be found in the 24 January, 2014 issue of Nature Communications Journal, under the title, "A role for sorting nexin 27 in AMPA receptor trafficking" by Li Shen Loo1,2, Ning Tang3, Muthafar Al Haddawi1, Gavin Stewart Dawe3 Wanjin Hong1,4,12 and the 24 March, 2013 issue of Nature Medicine Journal, under the title, "Loss of sorting nexin 27 contributes to excitatory synaptic dysfunction by modulating glutamate receptor recycling in Down's syndrome" by Xin Wang5,6, Yingjun Zhao5,7, Xiaofei Zhang5, Hedieh Badie8, Ying Zhou6, Yangling Mu9, Li Shen Loo1,2, Lei Cai1, Robert C Thompson5, Bo Yang5, Yaomin Chen5, Peter F Johnson10, Chengbiao Wu11, Guojun Bu7, William C Mobley11, Dongxian Zhang5, Fred H Gage9, Barbara Ranscht8, Yun wu Zhang5,7, Stuart A Lipton5,11, Wanjin Hong1,4,12 Huaxi Xu5,7

by finding ways to grant these fundamental capabilities to those diagnosed with Down's syndrome. Our ultimate goal is to create a positive impact on the lives of these valuable children."

Brain nerve cell studded with SNX27(Image from Loo Li Shen, IMCB Refer to attached PDF)

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6. Dr Loo Li Shen was an ASTAR scholar who is now working with Executive Director of IMCB, Prof Wanjin Hong, and is also an adjunct Assistant Professor at LKC medical school of NTU. Our research goes beyond the lab to make a difference Lacoste Live Polo White

11Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

7Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory Lacoste Shirts Slim Fit

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